WARNING: the foods we cook for Abby are safe for her, but not necessarily for everyone. Please confirm any ingredients are safe for you before using in your diet. Food Allergies can kill and the best policy is complete avoidance. Read this post for more info.

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Mito Vocab:

Immunotoxicology:

Via Wiki: Immunotoxicology (sometimes abbreviated as ITOX) is the study of immune dysfunction resulting from exposure of an organism to a xenobiotic. The immune dysfunction may take the form of immunosuppression or alternatively, allergy, autoimmunity or any number of inflammatory-based diseases or pathologies. Because the immune system plays a critical role in host resistance to disease as well as in normal homeostasis of an organism, identificantion of immunotoxic risk is significant in the protection of human, animal and wildlife health.

In the non-adult (embryo, fetus, neonate, juvenile, adolescent) this study is referred to as Developmental Immunotoxicology (commonly abbreviated as DIT). For most toxicants examined to date, the developing immune system exhibits a heightened sensitivity compared with that of an adult. For this reason, DIT screening has applications to human, animal and wildlife health protection.


Xenobiotics:

The term xenobiotics, however, is very often used in the context of pollutants such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and their effect on the biota, because xenobiotics are understood as substances foreign to an entire biological system, i.e. artificial substances, which did not exist in nature before their ...
Xenobiotic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Ototoxicity:

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ototoxicity

Ototoxicity is the property of being toxic to the ear (oto-), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibular system; it is commonly medication-induced. Ototoxic drugs include antibiotics such as gentamicin, loop diuretics such as furosemide and platinum-based chemotherapy agents such as cisplatin. A number of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) have also been shown to be ototoxic. This can result in sensorineural hearing loss, dysequilibrium, or both. Either may be reversible and temporary, or irreversible and permanent.

Nephrotoxicity:

Nephrotoxicity (from Greek: nephros, "kidney") is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxic chemicals and medication, on the kidneys. There are various forms of toxicity.
Nephrotoxicity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NephrotoxicityWikipedia

Aminoglycoside:


via Wikipedia; Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar);[1][2] the term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains aminosugar substructures. Aminoglycoside antibiotics display bactericidal activity against gram-negative aerobes and some anaerobic bacilli where resistance has not yet arisen, but generally not against Gram-positive and anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria.[3] They include the first-in-class aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin (images at right) derived from Streptomyces griseus, the earliest modern agent used against tuberculosis, and an example that lacks the common 2-deoxystreptamine moiety (image right, below) present in many other class members. Other examples include the deoxystreptamine-containing agents kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, and neomycin (see below).

Mitotoxicity:


Mitochondrial Plasticity:

Mitochondrial biogenesis:

Genetic Toxicology:

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Single-strand and double-strand DNA damage potentially caused by genotoxins
In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer. While genotoxicity is often confused with mutagenicity, all mutagens are genotoxic, however, not all genotoxic substances are mutagenic. The alteration can have direct or indirect effects on the DNA: the induction of mutations, mistimed event activation, and direct DNA damage leading to mutations. The permanent, heritable changes can affect either somatic cells of the organism or germ cells to be passed on to future generations.[1] Cells prevent expression of the genotoxic mutation by either DNA repair or apoptosis; however, the damage may not always be fixed leading to mutagenesis.

To assay for genotoxic molecules, researchers assay for DNA damage in cells exposed to the toxic substrates. This DNA damage can be in the form of single- and double-strand breaks, loss of excision repair, cross-linking, alkali-labile sites, point mutations, and structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations.[2] The compromised integrity of the genetic material has been known to cause cancer. As a consequence, many sophisticated techniques including Ames Assay, in vitro and in vivo Toxicology Tests, and Comet Assay have been developed to assess the chemicals' potential to cause DNA damage that may lead to cancer.

Immunopharmacology:

(Via Merriam Weber)

Definition of IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

1
: a branch of pharmacology concerned with the application of immunological techniques and theory to the study of the effects of drugs especially on the immune system
2
: the immunological effects and significance of a particular drug (as morphine)

Toxicokinetic:

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Toxicokinetics (often abbreviated as 'TK') is the description of what rate a chemical will enter the body and what happens to it once it is in the body.

Mycotoxin:

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A mycotoxin (from Greek μύκης (mykes, mukos) "fungus" and τοξικόν (toxikon) "poison")[1][2] is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungi kingdom, commonly known as molds.[3] The term 'mycotoxin' is usually reserved for the toxic chemical products produced by fungi that readily colonize crops.[4] One mold species may produce many different mycotoxins, and the same mycotoxin may be produced by several species.[5]

Neurotoxicology:



Microbiome:

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Depiction of the human body and bacteria that predominate
A microbiome is "the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms that literally share our body space."[1][2] Joshua Lederberg coined the term, arguing the importance of microorganisms inhabiting the human body in health and disease. Many scientific articles distinguish "microbiome" and "microbiota" to describe either the collective genomes of the microorganisms that reside in an environmental niche or the microorganisms themselves, respectively.[3][4][5] However by the original definitions these terms are largely synonymous.

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